Trans-Alaska Pipeline System
Congress to compensate statewide Native claims. The shares paid dividends based on both the settlement and corporation profits. Many natives were worried that the disruption caused by the pipeline would scare away the whales and caribou that are relied upon for food.
The arguments continued through Objections about the caribou herds were countered by observations of Davidson Ditcha water pipeline with the same diameter of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, which caribou were able to jump over.
Ted Stevens felt the statement "was not written by a proponent," it maintained the general approval for pipeline construction that was demonstrated in the draft statement.
Secretary of the Interior Rogers Morton allowed 45 days of comment after the release, and conservationists created a 1,page document opposing the impact statement. District Court of Appeals in Washington, D. The appeals court said that although the impact statement followed the guidelines set by the National Environmental Policy Act, it did not follow the Minerals Leasing Act, which allowed for a smaller pipeline right of way than was required for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline.
Supreme Court, but in Aprilthe court declined to hear the case. The Senate Interior Committee began the first hearings on a series of bills to that effect on March 9, They believed the "leave it in the ground" argument was doomed to fail, and the best way to oppose the pipeline would be to propose an ineffective alternative which could be easily defeated.
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Senate and the House continued through the summer of on both new bills and amendments to the Mineral Leasing Act. On July 13, an amendment calling for more study of the project—the Mondale-Bayh Amendment —was defeated. Mike Gravel was passed by the Senate. The amendment declared that the pipeline project fulfilled all aspects of NEPA and modified the Mineral Leasing Act to allow the larger right-of-way for the Alaska pipeline.
Because the United States imported approximately 35 percent of its oil from foreign sources,  the embargo had a major effect. The price of gasoline shot upward, gasoline shortages were common, and rationing was considered.
Most Americans began demanding a solution to the problem, and President Richard Nixon began lobbying for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline as at least a part of the answer. Nixon supported the pipeline project even before the oil crisis.
On September 10,he released a message stating that the pipeline was his priority for the remainder of the Congressional session that year. Members of Congress, under pressure from their constituents, created the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Actwhich removed all legal barriers from construction of the pipeline, provided financial incentives, and granted a right-of-way for its construction.
The act was drafted, rushed through committee, and approved by the House ancoraggio istituto di perdita di peso alaska November 12,by a vote of —14— The next day, the Senate passed it, 80—5— Although the legal right-of-way was cleared by Januarycold weather, the need to hire workers, and construction of the Dalton Highway meant work on the pipeline itself did not begin until March.
Difficult terrain, particularly in Atigun PassKeystone Canyonand near the Sagavanirktok River forced workers to come up with solutions for unforeseen problems. Thirty-two Alyeska and contract employees died from causes directly related to construction. That figure does not include common carrier casualties. Its impact has included fatkiller anwendung, physical, and social repercussions running the gamut from life in small towns to the global oil market.
Construction of the pipeline caused a massive economic boom in towns up and down the pipeline route. Prior to construction, most residents in towns like Fairbanks—still recovering from the devastating Fairbanks Flood —strongly supported the pipeline.
Non-pipeline businesses often could not keep up with the demand for higher wages, and job turnover was high. Yellow cab in Fairbanks had a turnover rate of percent; a nearby restaurant had a turnover rate of more than 1, percent.
To meet the demand, a Fairbanks high school ran in two shifts: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon in order to teach students who also worked eight hours per day. This was exacerbated by the fact that police officers and state troopers resigned in large groups to become pipeline security guards at wages far in excess of those available in public-sector jobs.
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Inthe Fairbanks Police Department estimated between 40 and prostitutes were working in the city of 15, people. Inpolice responded to a shootout between warring pimps who wielded automatic firearms. Poor accounting and record keeping allowed large numbers of tools and large amounts of equipment to be stolen. Alyeska denied the problem and said only 20—30 trucks were missing.
The boxes then would be filled with items and shipped out. After Alyeska ruled that all packages had to be sealed in the presence of a security guard, ancoraggio istituto di perdita di peso alaska number of packages being sent from camps dropped by 75 percent. The balance sheet of Alaskan history is simple: One Prudhoe Bay is worth more in real dollars than everything that has been dug out, cut down, caught or killed in Alaska since the beginning of time.
Prior toAlaska's personal income tax rate was Byfive years after the pipeline started transporting oil, The state also has a property tax on oil production structures and transportation pipeline property—the only state property tax in Alaska.
There is a special corporate income tax on petroleum companies, and the state taxes the amount of petroleum produced. This production tax is levied on the cost of oil at Pump Station 1. To calculate this tax, the state takes the market value of the oil, subtracts transportation costs tanker and pipeline tariffssubtracts production costs, then multiplies the resulting amount per barrel of oil produced each month.
The state then takes a percentage of the dollar figure produced.
The rate fluctuates based on the cost of oil, with lower prices incurring lower tax rates. This "royalty oil" is not taxed but is sold back to the oil companies, generating additional revenue. This property tax is based on the pipeline's value as assessed by the state and the local property tax rate.
The enormous amount of public revenue created by the pipeline provoked debates about what to do with the windfall. To ensure that oil revenue wasn't spent as it came in, the Alaska Legislature and come perdere grasso dall interno coscia Jay Hammond proposed the creation of an Alaska Permanent Fund —a long-term savings account for the state.
The amendment requires at least 25 percent of mineral extraction revenue to be deposited in the Permanent Fund.
That deposit and subsequent ones were invested entirely in bonds, but debates quickly arose about the style of investments and what they should be used for. After two years of legal arguments about who should be eligible for payments, the first checks were distributed to Alaskans. Oil prices remained high until the late s,  when a stable international situation, the removal of price controls, and the peak of production at Prudhoe Bay contributed to the s oil glut. Knight starred in one of two movies about the pipeline construction, Pipe Dreams.
The other film was Joyrideand both were critically panned.
The pipeline has also inspired various forms of artwork. The most notable form of art unique to the pipeline are pipeline maps—portions of scrap pipe cut into the shape of Alaska with a piece of metal delineating the path of the pipeline through the map.
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However, many local Inuit rely on the pipeline and oil industry for income. It is also a source of heat and energy for locals.
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Technical details[ edit ] The pipeline simply rests on its supports; it is not actually welded or otherwise affixed in place. The Prudhoe Bay Oil Field, the one most commonly associated with the pipeline, contributes oil,  as do the Kuparuk Alpine Endicottand Liberty oil fields, among others.
The minimum flow year was which averagedbarrels per day 80, Operating at lower flows will extend the life of the pipeline as well as increasing profit for its owners.
Low flowrates require that the oil move slower through the line, meaning that its temperature drops more than in high-flow situations. A freeze in the line would block a pig in the line, which would force a shutdown and repairs.
This report noted that these improvements could bring flow as low asbbd, but it did not attempt to determine the absolute minimum. Other studies have suggested that the minimum is 70, tobbd with the current pipeline. Alyeska could also replace the 48" pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to Fairbanks with a 20" pipeline and use rail the rest of the way, which would allow as little as 45, bbd.
The original design called for 12 pump stations with 4 pumps each, but Pump Station 11 ancoraggio istituto di perdita di peso alaska never built. Nevertheless, the pump stations retained their intended naming system. Eight stations were operating at startup, and this number increased to 11 by as throughput rose. Forty-two thousand of these sections were welded together to make a double joint, which was laid in place on the line. Sixty-six thousand "field girth welds" were needed to join the double joints into a continuous pipeline.
More than 19, tankers have been filled by the marine terminal since